The concept of pedagogical content knowledge, which shulman introduced as a hypothesis as president of the american educational research association in 1985, became popular very quickly. To have a precise and comprehensive teaching strategy, the deliverer should have sufficient knowledge. Knowledge base of teacher education from view point of t. Pedagogical knowledge and the changing nature of the teaching profession edited by sonia guerriero educational research and innovation. This knowledgebased is where shulman device his theory. Mentoring and developing pedagogical content knowledge in. What is technological pedagogical content knowledge. Lee shulmans knowledgebased principles pointed mainly to the teachers way of effective delivery of teaching to the students. In 1983, lee shulman stated at a national conference at the university of.
Shulmans 1986 1987 seminal work on teachers pedagogical content. In shulmans view, pedagogical content knowledge is a form of practical know. Pedagogical content knowledge, discourse, intercultural awareness since shulmans 1986 seminal work, a rich collection of theories and measures of mathematics pedagogical content knowledge pck continues to grow e. These were conceptions that fit well with the centrality of subject. His widely cited followup paper shulman 1987 elaborated pck as follows. These includes, content knowledge general pedagogical knowledge psychology of learner and learning. This article reports the authorsefforts to develop a practicebased theory of content knowledge for teaching built on shulmans 1986 notion of pedagogical content knowledge. Lee shulman is a north american researcher and emeritus professor at stanford university. However, little is known about how teacher education affects. The influence of the pedagogical content knowledge theoretical framework on research on preservice teacher education storey mecoli, journal of education abstract pedagogical content knowledge pck, lee s. The influence of the pedagogical content knowledge. An interview with lee shulman, professor of education, discusses advantages of contentspecific development, noting the important role of case studies and the changes necessary for helping teachers become lifelong students of content and pedagogy. Eric ej460504 merging content knowledge and pedagogy. Shulman 1987 defined pedagogical content knowledge pck as.
Scandinavian journal of educational research 31, 59. Pedagogical content knowledge lee shulman, goldston. Measuring teachers pedagogical content knowledge in surveys. In his research paper entitled knowledge and teaching. A conversation with lee shulman stanford professor lee shulman reflects on the limitations of generalizations about effective teaching and describes how case histories specific stories about classroom experience can enrich our collective wisdom of practice. Shulman 1987 calls this pedagogical content knowledge. Pedagogical knowledge and the changing nature of the. Teachers pedagogical knowledge and the teaching profession background report and project objectives.
Morrison and kathleen carroll luttenegger metropolitan state university of denver, denver, colorado, usa pedagogical content knowledge pck is the intersection of a teachers knowledge of content, pedagogy, and of the context of the learning situation. Pedagogical content knowledge, or pck, as it is often called, is a construct coined by lee shulman 1938 in the mid1980s to emphasize the importance of studying teacher professional knowledge, and teacher knowledge of subject matter in particular. He stated that teachertraining programs were separating the what content from the how pedagogy when preparing teachers for the field. Scandinavian journal of educational research 31, 5970. Lee shulmans model of pedagogical reasoning and action is related to his theory of pedagogical content knowledge and includes the following components. Shulmans 1986 theoretical framework, has had a substantial influence on research in preservice teacher education, and consequently. Intense focus on the notion of pedagogical content knowledge pck within teacher education is attributed to lee shulmans 1985 aera presidential address shulman 1986 in which he referred to pck as the special amalgam of content and pedagogy central to the teaching of subject matter.
The malaysian online journal of educational science eric. By defining pck, shulman attempts to bridge what he describes as the gap between. Shulman pedagogical content knowledge rebecca west burns. It is different from the knowledge of a disciplinary expert and from general pedagogical knowledge. Educational researcher, 152, 414 in his 1986 publication, knowledge growth in teaching, lee shulman introduces and outlines the concept of pedagogical content knowledge pck and proposes a theoretical framework for its development. Technological pedagogical content knowledge tpack is a framework to understand and describe the kinds of knowledge needed by a teacher for effective pedagogical practice in a technologyenhanced learning environment.
The concept of pedagogical content knowledge pck has informed colleges. Measuring pedagogical content knowledge using multiple. The term pedagogical content knowledge was coined by lee shulman in the mid80s. He argues that teaching requires knowledge of the content, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge o. Pedagogical content knowledge pck was first introduced by shulman in the. Pedagogical content knowledge pck and content knowledge ck are key components of teacher competence that affect student progress. Mishra and koehler added technology as a modeling element to lee shulmans pedagogical content knowledge pck construct. Pedagogical content knowledge in mathematics education.
Ron brandt jpt the early 1980s, educators were i excited because we seemed to. An exploratory study this paper discusses the efforts of a group of researchers at the university of michigan to develop surveybased measures of what lee s. The knowledge bases are content knowledge, general pedagogical knowledge, curriculum knowledge, pck, knowledge of learners and their characteristics, knowledge of educational contest and. Lee shulman s model of pedagogical reasoning and action is related to his theory of pedagogical content knowledge and includes the following components. Pedagogical content knowledge, or pck, as it is often called, is a construct coined by lee shulman 1938 in the mid1980s to emphasize the. Using shulmans model of pedagogical reasoning and action. Shulman builds his foundation for teaching reform on an idea of teaching that emphasizes comprehension and reasoning, transformation and reflection. In his work lee shulman explained that pck conceptualizes. The role of teachers pedagogical content knowledge in social studies is addressed through two. Shulman, knowledge growth in teaching 1986 dlavertydotcom. By defining pck, shulman attempts to bridge what he describes as the gap. In this essay, shulman makes a case that teaching has a knowledge base.
Teachers need focused staff development to improve content knowledge and pedagogy for specific subject areas. Pdf teachers content knowledge and pedagogical content. However, each author started with shulmans model and, based on their interpretation, shaped the model in unique ways that fit their perceptions of the data on. In his 1985 aera presidential address, lee shulman identified a special domain of teacher knowledge, which he referred to as pedagogical content knowledge. Shulman in 1987 investigated and identified different kind of knowledge teacher posses which influences their action. He distinguished between content as it is studied and. Lee shulman 1986 who proposed the concept of pck, describes it as teachers understanding of the most useful forms of representation of the most powerful analogies, illustrations, examples, explanations, and demonstrations in a word, the ways of representing and formulating the subject that make it comprehensible to others p. Teacher tests began including items intended to assess teachers pck, researchers began proposing projects to document such knowledge.
The knowledge of teaching pedagogical content knowledge. It includes knowledge of concepts, theories, ideas, organisational framework, and evidence and proof, as well as the practices and approaches that lead to developing such knowledge shulman, 1987. Knowledge for teaching lawlor 1990 describes the medieval view of teaching as one where only subject knowledge is necessary. The development of tpack by teachers is critical to effective teaching. Technological pedagogical content knowledge wikipedia.
Measuring pedagogical content knowledge using multiple points of data ann d. Shulman 1987 suggests that there are seven such categories of knowledge bases. The first key study on teacher knowledge shulman, 1987 categorised teacher knowledge into 7. Content knowledge, on the other hand, is the what of teaching. The purpose of this chapter is to explore and analyze the kind of knowledge curriculum integration ci required of teachers and how teacher education should be developed to prepare teachers better for ci. Practice since 1985 shulman, 1986, 1987, 2004 and even then. Shulman 1987 rationalised that teachers need seven knowledge bases in order to teach effectively and successfully. Content knowledge ck is the teachers knowledge about the subject matter students will learn. Pedagogical content knowledge, that special amalgam of content and pedagogy that is uniquely the province of teachers, their own special form of professional understanding shulman, 1987, p.542 351 1207 1356 164 281 400 750 183 1178 384 520 858 427 904 1196 1260 283 1352 246 1096 875 444 1392 899 38 707 158 1147 790 426 829 628 76 893 517 1428 735 375 180 362 662 990 386 1327 578 199