Chen veterinary toxicology and entomology research laboratory, agricultural research service, u. Both male and female stable flies feed on blood and they are often aggressive and persistent feeders. Counts of flies on front legs of cattle is a reliable monitoring tool. Stomoxys calcitrans article about stomoxys calcitrans by. Stomoxys calcitrans is a cosmopolitan haematophagous fly that mechanically transmits viruses e. Stomoxys print iconographia zoologica special collections university of amsterdam ubainv0274 039 07 0010. Stable fly is the most universally accepted common name but there are many others used to refer to this pest, including dog fly because of their preference for canine hosts, biting house fly because of their similarity in appearance to house flies, and powermower fly after a paper by ware 1966. Stable flies are obligate blood feeders and primarily attack cattle and horses for a blood meal. Widely distributed, it is found in abundance in direct proximity to domestic animals, both in stables and in pasture. Lsdv transmission by stomoxys calcitrans was evidenced in 3 independent experiments table 2, fig. Stomoxys calcitrans, seasonal distribution, climatic factors, dairy cattle. Hosted by the usgs core science analytics and synthesis.
Pdf stomoxys calcitrans diptera, muscidae is an important. Muscidae, improve offspring fitness by avoiding oviposition substrates with competitors or parasites article pdf available january 2020 with. They are obligate bloodsucking insects and some species are considered significant economic pests of livestock and other warmblooded animals in many parts of the world. Stomoxys calcitrans wikispecies, free species directory. In conjunction, manual curation of over 1600 genes was. Stomoxys is a genus of flies in the family muscidae. Stomoxys calcitrans is commonly called the stable fly, barn fly, biting house fly, dog fly, or power. Smd1 differs from the classic defensin pattern in having an unusual sixamino acidlong nterminal sequence. Bacillus anthracis, pasteurella multocida, protozoans e. Effect of larval density and substrate quality on the wing. A proposal for tsetse fly glossina genome projects. Stomoxys calcitrans definition of stomoxys calcitrans by.
Pdf stable fly biology and control in northwest florida. It has a broader abdomen than the house fly and there is a checkerboard of dark spots on the dorsum of the abdomen. Evaluation of the stable fly stomoxys calcitrans as a. Responses of the stable fly, stomoxys calcitrans l. Transmission of poliomyelitis by means of the stable fly stomoxys calcitrans is an article from public health reports 18961970, volume 27. Materials and methods stable flies, stomoxys calcitrans l. Stomoxys calcitrans smithsonian environmental research center. This paper gives an overview of stable ny, stomoxys calcilmllol l. The third instar larval skin hardens to form a puparium that is reddishbrown and capsulelike. Muscidae are found in africa and the palearctic, but the stable fly, stomoxys calcitrans l. Hence, the objective of this investigation was to detect the presence of dna from a. Influence of temperature, humidity and rainfall on field. Dec 27, 2019 lsdv infection of acceptor animals by stomoxys calcitrans. Muscidae, improve offspring fitness by avoiding oviposition substrates with competitors or parasites article pdf available.
Now found worldwide, the species is considered to be of eurasian origin. The genus is unusual among the muscidae in that it includes species that are bloodsucking ectoparasites of mammals. Susceptibility of two european strains of stomoxys calcitrans the. Data on the implication of the stable fly stomoxys calcitrans, diptera. Stable fly, a comparator species for the tsetse project. Stomoxys calcitrans and its importance in livestock bluepen journals. On a local scale utilization and excretion of blood meal sterols by the stable fly, stomoxys calcitrans g.
Although the movement of stable fly, stomoxys calcitrans l. Physiological amino acids of the nervous system of the stable. Molecular detection of anaplasma marginale in stable flies. Trypanosoma evansi, besnoitia besnoiti, and helminths e. Pdf the stable fly stomoxys calcitrans has historically been a pest of dairy cattle and feedlots due to the availability of decaying plant matter. In the absence of these animal hosts, they will bite people and dogs. High relative abundance of the stable fly stomoxys calcitrans is associated with lumpy skin disease outbreaks in.
Stomoxys calcitrans, stable fly, rearing, blood, sugar, survivorship. The genus is small, comprising a dozen or two described species, and current evidence. A bimodal pattern of stable fly population dynamics was observed, both peaks occurring in early summer and fall. In one vector experiment, calves and bovine leukemia virus blvinfected cows were housed with and without stable flies.
Stomoxys niger marquart has also been described as a pest in parts of africa gilles et al. View more articles from public health reports 18961970. We have cloned and sequenced two defensins, smd1 and smd2, from anterior midgut tissue of the bloodsucking fly stomoxys calcitrans. Stomoxys calcitrans, a fly of the family muscidae, order diptera. Jul 29, 2011 photographed at fisher, minnesota 29 july 2011. Stomoxys calcitrans l is a worldwide livestock pest and important economic losses are encountered when stable flies are present in large numbers campbell et al. Stomoxys calcitrans has a high resemblance to musca domestica. The factors influencing seasonal dynamics and spatial. The stable fly, stomoxys calcitrans, resembles musca domestica but has a stout, black proboscis which is used to pierce the skin and imbibe blood.
Spatial distribution of stable fly stomoxys calcitrans. West nile fever virus, rift valley fever virus, bacteria e. Stomoxys calcitrans as possible vector of trypanosoma evansi. Lsdv infection of acceptor animals by stomoxys calcitrans. Habronema microstoma, dirofilaria repens to their hosts.
The larva then forms a pupa inside the puparium figure 4. Rolled hay feeding sites are potential stable fly, stomoxys calcitrans l. They are grey with four long longitudinal stripes on the thorax, and with large black spots on the abdomen. Musca domestica y l fesuho musca autumnalis y l fecfa stomoxys calcitrans stable fly. The bestknown species is stomoxys calcitrans, most commonly known as the stable fly. Pdf stomoxys calcitrans and its importance in livestock. In rural areas, uncovered ensilage stacks are the main breeding sites. Transmission of pathogens by stomoxys flies diptera, muscidae.
Stable fly, stomoxys calcitrans and other biting flies description and biology the stable fly is a common biting fly found inside and out of swine facilities. Animals free fulltext mechanical transmission of lumpy. Residency stomoxys calcitrans is predominantly terrestrial in its habits, and is known most commonly from barnyards, stables, etc. Experiments reported here were directed at 2 questions. Several generations are produced during the course of the summer. Stomoxys calcitrans synonyms, stomoxys calcitrans pronunciation, stomoxys calcitrans translation, english dictionary definition of stomoxys calcitrans. One nzi trap was placed on a camel farm located in the infected area for a period of one year. Introduction the stable fly, stomoxys calcitrans l.
Experimental evidence of mechanical lumpy skin disease. Muscidae, is the most widely distributed, present in the western hemisphere as well as the socalled old world. Chemostimuli implicated in selection of oviposition. The bestknown species is stomoxys calcitrans, most commonly known as the stable fly the genus is small, comprising a dozen or two described species, and current evidence suggests that it is paraphyletic as well. Pdf stomoxys calcitrans, mechanical vector of virulent. Quantitative samples were collected routinely and the number of immatures was recorded for each type of breeding medium. Both male and female stable flies take 12 bloodmeals daily and are frequently observed resting in shaded areas while they digest their meal. A fly that sucks the blood of domestic animals and humans. However, another common habitat is intertidal strandlines, where this fly breeds in accumulated submerged aquatic vegetation and seaweeds. Stomoxys calcitrans stable fly female, arnhem, the netherlands. Ingestion, utilization and excretion of blood meal sterols by.
Experimental evidence of mechanical lumpy skin disease virus. Muscidae, in the transmission of anaplasma marginale in tick free cattle is scarce. The seasonal dynamics of a stomoxys calcitrans population was evaluated, using vavoua traps, in a semiurban area located in southwestern france national veterinary school of toulouse where horse and cattle paddocks were available. Stomoxys calcitrans diptera, muscidae is an important haematophagus fly which feeds on the blood. Isolation of enterobacter sakazakii from midgut of stomoxys. Aug 29, 20 stomoxys calcitrans is a cosmopolitan species.861 848 652 1363 108 637 520 595 1273 951 43 1363 1512 499 1501 783 71 478 650 74 966 252 495 403 824 450 1279 984 321 94