Breaking the windtunnel barrier air force magazine. In this type of facility, a long tube is filled with pressurized gas. A look at chinas most exciting hypersonic aerospace programs. A sketch of the overall facility complex is shown in figure 1. Aedc hypervelocity wind tunnel 9 is a hypersonic wind tunnel owned by the united states air force and operated by national aerospace solutions the facility can generate high mach numbers and high reynolds for hypersonic ground testing and the validation of computational simulations for the air force and department of defense. A suctiontype continuousoperation supersonic wind tunnel for investigations into subsonic and supersonic air flow. Government wind tunnel became operational in 1921 and was located at the langley memorial aeronautical laboratory of the national advisory committee for aeronautics naca, which became nasa langley research center in 1958. Supersonic wind tunnel continuous aerodynamics tecquipment. The apl heliulll hypersonic wind tunnel a schematic view of the apl helium hyper. Wind tunnels school of aeronautics and astronautics. Impulse type, shortduration testing requires other special procedures to compensate for such things as the inertia forces from model vibrations. Chapter 16 the nasa glenn research centers hypersonic.
A hypersonic wind tunnel is designed to generate a hypersonic flow field in the working section, thus simulating the typical flow features of this flow regime including compression shocks and pronounced boundary layer effects, entropy layer and viscous interaction zones and most importantly high total temperatures of the flow. Pdf overview of x38 hypersonic wind tunnel data and. High pressure air is injected into the arc heater where the air is heated to very high stagnation temperatures. The wind tunnel in the lower center of the figure is the nasa. White oak wind tunnel developments dismantled in 1997. Schneider purdue university, west lafayette, indiana 479071282 doi. D c c of a t w t dissertation draft 1 wiredspace home. How wind tunnels work wind tunnels are machines for flying aircraft on the ground. Wind tunnel and lasers give nation a hypersonic proving ground.
Detection of nitrogen flow condensation in a hypersonic wind tunnel using a static pressure probe. Nitrogen vibrational population measurements in the plenum. Boundarylayer transition was studied on a sharp 7 deg cone in two hypersonic wind tunnels at mach numbers of 5, 6, 8, and 14 over a range of freestream reynolds numbers between 3. The first level of experimental verification included labtests with laser heating. The facility continues to supports testing for dod, mda. The blowdown type wind tunnel offers run times on the order of a few seconds at high mach numbers with relatively steady flow conditions. The characteristics of the low speed wind tunnel and the related data will be presented along with its advantages and shortcomings. Pressurized air is stored in stagnation tanks, then forced through. Hypersonic flutter and flutter suppression system of a.
A schematic of an arc heated wind tunnel, shown in figure 2, better describes the functional relation of the primary components. Sources consulted include wind tunnel installation web sites. The wind tunnel gas must be heated prevent condensation of nitrogen use electric resistance heaters unique to each mach number omaximum of 3 megawatt wind tunnel throat is jacketed by a highpressure water line for cooling high mach numbers. Heat transfer and boundary layer growth for ultra high reynolds number compressible turbulent boundary layers for a radiatively driven hypersonic wind tunnel.
The virginia tech blowdown type highspeed wind tunnel which operates at speeds ranging from mach 2 to 7 is shown in figures 1 and 2. Windtunnel balance characterization for hypersonic research. Wind tunnels can be designated by the type of fluid that is used in the tunnel. In view of this, impulsive experimental facilities like blowdown wind tunnels are designed and installed to simulate the hypersonic flow. Parker nasa langley research center, hampton, virginia 23681 doi. In the past,a major problem in the stu of efficient hypersonic airbreathing aircraft resulted from the limited reynods number capability of hypersonic wind tunnels. The paper involves a design of mach 5 nozzle from an existing mach 6 nozzle of a large hypersonic wind tunnel in vikram sarabhai space centre, thiruvananthapuram in order to obtain the simulation of mach 5. Description and flow characterization of hypersonic. Fast valve for starting hypersonic wind tunnels sbir. Kyle lynch, senior member of the technical staff, inspects a model installed into sandias hypersonic wind tunnel. Wind tunnels of the western hemisphere the library of.
I apparatus in general, static stability data in a hypersonic wind tunnel are obtained by use of a strain gage. Hypersonic wind tunnel test model of chinas hypersonic. Analysis and design of quiet hypersonic wind tunnels. May 05, 2015 for hypersonic testing, a variation of the blowdown tunnel called a shock tube is often used. Photograph above of giant vanes which help air flow around a corner in this transonic wind tunnel at nasas langley research center.
During the study of test models in a hypersonic wind tunnel, the presence of small. In addition, crossreference indexes with page numbers, at the end of the report, provide quick lookup tools. A model usually shaped like a cone, cylinder or tailpiece replica of what might be used with flight vehicles is placed in the tunnels 18inch diameter test section. Test times in a blowdown tunnel or shock tube are much less than in a continuous flow tunnel. Library of congress federal research division aeronautical wind tunnels eastern hemisphere. Examples of the work performed in the helium hypersonic tunnel in each of these two areas are given. Nasa wind tunnels are often designated by the crosssectional dimensions of the test section. At the second level, largescale tests were conducted within the hypersonic wind tunnel to achieve the conditions closest to the atmospheric reentry.
The hypersonic tunnel facility htf at nasas plum brook station located in sandusky, oh, originally designed to test nuclear thermal rocket nozzles, is a hypersonic mach 5, 6, and 7 blowdown, nonvitiated freejet facility that tests largescale hypersonic airbreathing propulsion systems. Once destroyed, debris of the model may cause damage to the wind tunnel facilities and lead to an increase in experiment costs. The documentary also discussed advances in chinas jf12 shockwave wind tunnel, which is able to create a wind speed five to 10 times that of sound. Hypersonic pebble bed heated blowdown tunnel to mach 10 tunnel 8 20 inch dia. It also allows students to study air flow in two dimensions around aerodynamic models. The importance of these tunnels to the maintenance of a. The wave superheater is a gatlingf tintype multiple shocktube apparatus that discharges the equivalent of about 14,000 shock tubes a second to provide a largevolume hypersonic flow in a wind tunnel.
Aedc tr946 hypersonic wind tunnel test techniques r. With this arrangement, the shock waves formed upstream of the diffuser are re. The aeroelastic behavior of a thin flat rudder model was numerically simulated and experimentally investigated in a hypersonic wind tunnel. The hypersonic tunnel facility, a unique wind tunnel designed to test airbreathing propulsion systems at speeds up to seven times the speed of sound. Radiatively driven hypersonic wind tunnel aiaa journal.
The threeyear contribution will fund vertical takeoff and landing research conducted at the universitys rotorcraft lab, and highspeed flight experiments up to mach 8, or 6,000 mph, at the schools hypersonic wind tunnel. Hypersonic wind tunnel calibration using the modern. The wind tunnel in the lower center of the figure is the nasa glenn 10 x 10. Previous reports have discussed the tunnel design, instrumentation and flow visualisation techniques, the heater performance2, and the calibration3 of the twodimensional m 7 fuzed silica nozzle. At the lower left is the nasa ames 80 x 120, which is a full scale, low speed wind tunnel. The hypersonic tunnel facility is unique due to its large scale and use of nonvitiated clean air flow. A large blowdown hypersonic tunnel 86 in 1957 ames engineers began designing a large wind tunnel that could subject larger models than previously possible to airspeeds between mach 5 and. The first problem is the automated design of the supersonic portion of a quiet hypersonic wind tunnel.
Hypersonic boundarylayer transition on reentry vehicles and lifting bodies is not a well understood phenomenon. Hypersonic wind tunnels are intended for studying the aerodynamics of hypersonic aircraft, space launchers, missiles, projectiles and the atmospheric reentry of space vehicles. Mach 5 wind tunnel the experiments conducted for this study were performed in the plenum of a mach 5 nonequilibrium. Undertake all operational, maintenance and sustainment activities associated with hypersonic wind tunnel test facilities engage with stakeholders, identify problems, arrange for the procurement of major and minor systems and engage with. A transonic wind tunnel was designed, constructed and calibrated in order to provide a valuable tool for the study of transonic flow phenomena. Expired lifetime application number us46565a inventor raymond o fredette. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed. Modern optimization software is combined with full. Nrl hypersonic wind tunnel is a longduration midsize aerodynamics test facility capable of realtime altitude and speed variation. Air force office of scientific research mach6 quiet tunnel bam6qt, the nasa 20inch mach 6, the sandia hypersonic wind tunnel at mach 8 hwt8, and the aedc tunnel 9. The wind tunnel makes use of flow properties surrounding the propagation of a shock wave along a tube in order to create the transonic flow. Hypersonic windtunnel measurements of boundarylayer.
These wind tunnels provide essential test and analysis servic es in support of dod, national, u. Wind tunnels of the eastern hemisphere library of congress. To best simulate hypersonic atmospheric flight and study boundarylayer transition in an affordable manner, uniform, hypersonic flow must be established quickly. One increasingly popular design for costeffective, highspeed, super and hypersonic wind tunnels is a ludwieg tube. The diffuser performance, and measurements of blockage, starting loads. Wind tunnel and lasers provide hypersonic proving ground at sandia national laboratories 7 november 2018, by michael j. The latest scramjets, nearspace planes, and super wind tunnels. Pdf hypersonic wind tunnel acoustic pressure sensors. Us3111843a us46565a us4656560a us3111843a us 3111843 a us3111843 a us 3111843a us 46565 a us46565 a us 46565a us 4656560 a us4656560 a us 4656560a us 3111843 a us3111843 a us 3111843a authority us united states prior art keywords duct air tunnel additional wind tunnel prior art date 19600801 legal status the legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Hypersonic wtpt facilities name test section mach number rn per ft. The countries represented in this catalog include argentina, brazil, canada, and the united states. Generally, hypersonic wind tunnels are intermittent, and this feature produces great impact loads on the test model when the wind tunnel starts or shuts down, possibly leading to structural failure of the model.
This catalog is a compilation of data on subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic wind tunnels in the eastern hemisphere used for. Windtunnel balance characterization for hypersonic research applications keith c. Highspeed schlieren measurements visualized the intermittent formation of instabilities and turbulent spots within the transitional boundary layer. The wind tunnel facilities range from hypersonic flows in a ludwig quiet flow tube to the boeing wind tunnel, a large subsonic tunnel. For lowspeed aircraft, the duplication of flight conditions in a wind tunnel was a relatively simple matter. C031567 windtunnel research was recently conducted at the nasa langley research centers 31inch mach 10. Undertake all operational, maintenance and sustainment activities associated with hypersonic wind tunnel test facilities engage with stakeholders, identify problems, arrange for the procurement of. With this all new talk about hypersonic weapons and aircraft, there is no better time to release my new video on how a supersonic wind tunnel works. The flow then passes through a contoured, convergingdiverging nozzle and out through. Air or other working gas is supplied from a compressor to charge the storage bottles visible within the frame at the bottom.
Hypersonic wind tunnel article about hypersonic wind tunnel. The documentarys revelation of chinas breakthrough in hypersonic research and development is a response to us speculation, song said. The nasa glenn research centers hypersonic tunnel facility htf is a blowdown, freejet wind tunnel that provides true enthalpy flight conditions for mach numbers of 5, 6, and 7. Hypersonic flutter and flutter suppression system of a wind.
In particular, a flutter suppression system taking advantage of collision within small gaps was proposed and a novel system for the flutter simulation of the whole nonlinear aeroelastic system including the flutter suppression system was developed. Hypersonic wind tunnel hwt hypersonics presents many more challenges than lower speeds. The center combines computational modeling and simulation, analysis, and experimentation to solve complex problems of interest to sandia, doe, dod, dhs, other government agencies, and industry. Wind tunnels of the western hemisphere library of congress. Design and navierstoker analysis of hypersonic wind tunnel nosla. Overview of x38 hypersonic wind tunnel data and comparison with numerical results. Hypervelocity wind tunnel 9 arnold air force base display. Under general guidance the hypersonic wind tunnel manager will. A hypersonic wind tunnel is designed to generate a hypersonic flow field in the working section. Wind tunnel and lasers provide hypersonic proving ground. Hypersonic tunnel facility nasa glenn research center. Hypervelocity wind tunnel 9, and aedc site located at white oak near silver spring, md. The 10 by 10foot abe silverstein supersonic wind tunnel 10. An instrument frame supplied holds a remote control unit that controls a highcapacity vacuum pump supplied.
The aerospace sciences laboratory asl houses a wide range of wind tunnels are available for testing designs. The measurement data covers a wide range of tunnel conditions, including the hypersonic ludwieg tube braunschweig hlb, the purdue boeingu. Aedc operates six active wind tunnels in two primary facilities, the propulsion wind tunnel facility. A special fastacting control valve initiates flow into the plenum chamber. One had only to duplicate the velocity, reynolds number. Wind tunnel and lasers provide hypersonic proving ground at. This catalog is a compilation of data on subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic wind tunnels in the western hemisphere used for aeronautical testing. Description the purpose of the present work is to integrate cfd into the design of quiet hypersonic wind tunnels and the analysis of their performance. Characterization of freestream disturbances in conventional.1227 1361 1303 402 37 693 625 591 1076 597 1167 98 1171 775 462 887 1399 923 257 236 28 759 943 759 299 1274 223 1201 14 65 869 1029